Origins of Life
Origins of Life
Refer to: http://www.reasons.org/rtb-101/originoflife and Ross, Hugh, and Fazale Rana. Origins of Life. Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress, 2004.
- Life appeared relatively early, 0.7 billion years or 700 million years after Earth was formed.
- Life appeared relatively quickly under hostile conditions, within 0.02 billion years or 20 million years from the time Earth was free from sterilizing collisions.
- The late heavy bombardment occurred 3.85 billion years ago, and the first evidence for life is 3.83 billion years ago.
- Life originated without a prebiotic soup – there is no evidence for a prebiotic soup.
- Earth’s early atmosphere could not have supported the chemistry needed to form prebiotic compounds.
- Prebiotic molecular synthesis requires reducing compounds, but Earth’s early atmosphere was neutral.
- Prebiotic molecular synthesis can occur in an atmosphere that has high levels of hydrogen gas, but hydrogen gas, due to its low molecular weight, would have escaped from the atmosphere rapidly, thereby not being available for a sufficient amount of time.
- Prebiotic molecular synthesis can occur in an atmosphere that has carbon monoxide, but carbon monoxide readily reacts with photochemical products of water to produce carbon dioxide, thereby not being available for a sufficient amount of time; and because the carbon monoxide bond is so stable, only high-energy components of cosmic rays can break it apart, but the flux of cosmic rays to Earth is not great enough to produce sufficient levels of hypothetical prebiotic materials.
- Throughout history, volcanic gas mixtures have been oxidizing, not reducing.
- For prebiotic materials to be synthesized at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, sufficient ammonia levels must be present at the vent, but ammonia did not exist at appreciable levels on early Earth; and also, the temperatures at these vents destroy any prebiotic materials within minutes or seconds.
- Carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen isotope ratios show that carbon and nitrogen from deposits originate from postbiotic decay as opposed to prebiotic origin.
- Life employs unprecedented chemical pathways – currently there is no true, naturalistic explanation for the development or origin of biochemical pathways.
- All nucleic acids have right-handed configurations and all amino acids (except for glycine, the simplest) have left-handed configurations, yet no current naturalistic process can produce these configurations in these proportions.
- Lack of a prebiotic soup and the actual conditions of the early earth confound the RNA world hypothesis. Please see:
- The simplest life forms are irreducibly complex, yet currently, no true, naturalistic explanation can account for this.
- Before 543 million years ago, Earth’s animals were primitive invertebrates, but within 2-3 million years or less, 40 or more phyla of complex animals appeared, including 24-25 of the 30 animal phyla that remain on Earth today – this is inconsistent with gradualism.
- Complete ecosystems appeared too, e.g. predator-prey relationships were optimized from the start – this is inconsistent with gradualism.
- The most advanced phylum ever to appear on Earth, the chordates, showed up at the very base of this explosion, according to the fossil record – this is inconsistent with gradualism.
- Only 5-6 new phyla have appeared during the past 540 million years, and about 15 phyla have disappeared – this is inconsistent with gradualism.
- Transitional forms are fully formed.
- Transitional forms are attributed to organisms that have the lowest probability of evolving.
- Platypuses, whales and horses have relatively small population sizes, larger average body sizes, longer generation times, and fewer progeny per adult, and therefore are less likely to benefit from mutations and more likely to reach extinction.
- Design convergence appears throughout the fossil record, and is neither bound by time nor by circumstance – naturalistic models show that this should be rare.
- Design convergence appears in species from radically different habitats facing widely diverse survival stresses – naturalistic models show that different habitats and different stresses should produce radically different adaptations.
- The chameleon (reptile) and sandlance (fish) both have eyes that move independently, use the cornea rather than the lens to focus on objects, have skin coverings for their eyes, have the same tongue, and have the same tongue-launching mechanism, yet they are far apart on any workable evolutionary chart.
- There is no viable mechanism for the proposed punctuated equilibrium – rapid evolution followed by long periods of stasis.
- There is no evidence for a “fourth law of thermodynamics,” a law in which diversity and complexity in the universe naturally increases in some optimal manner.
- This proposed law directly violates the second law of thermodynamics, which states that all natural systems manifest entropy with time, a phenomenon that is exhaustively confirmed.
- The multiverse theory is compatible with the Christian worldview, but there is no evidence to support the naturalistic version of this theory.